References - M1DE05
Unveiling the Evolutionary State of Three B Supergiant Stars: PU Gem, ϵ CMa, and η CMa
By: Julieta Paz Sánchez Arias; Péter Németh; Elisson Saldanha da Gama de Almeida; Matias Agustin Ruiz Diaz; Michaela Kraus; Maximiliano Haucke
In: Galaxies - 2023 - Volume 11, issue 5, p. 93. - 2023Galax..11...93S
Poster presentation: XVII Latin American Regional IAU Meeting, LARIM, Montevideo (Uruguay), November 27 – December 1, 2023
(Astroserver project reference: M1DE05)
Artist's view of Adhara (ϵ CMa, HD 52089) relative to our Sun.

We aim to combine asteroseismology, spectroscopy, and evolutionary models to establish a comprehensive picture of the evolution of Galactic blue supergiant stars (BSG). To start such an investigation, we selected three BSG candidates for our analysis: HD 42087 (PU Gem), HD 52089 (𝜖 CMa), and HD 58350 (𝜂 CMa). These stars show pulsations and were suspected to be in an evolutionary stage either preceding or succeding the red supergiant (RSG) stage.

For our analysis, we utilized the 2-min cadence TESS data to study the photometric variability, and we obtained new spectroscopic observations at the CASLEO observatory. We used non-LTE radiative transfer models calculated with CMFGEN to derive their stellar and wind parameters. For the fitting procedure, we included CMFGEN models in the iterative spectral analysis pipeline XTgrid to determine their CNO abundances. The spectral modeling was limited to changing only the effective temperature, surface gravity, CNO abundances, and mass-loss rates. Finally, we compared the derived metal abundances with prediction from Geneva stellar evolution models. The frequency spectra of all three stars show stochastic oscillations and indications of one nonradial strange mode, 𝑓𝑟 = 0.09321 𝑑−1 in HD 42087 and a rotational splitting centred in 𝑓2 = 0.36366 𝑑−1 in HD 52089.

Poster presentation at the 2023 LARIM conference.

We conclude that the rather short sectoral observing windows of TESS prevent establishing a reliable mode identification of low frequencies connected to mass-loss variabilities. The spectral analysis confirmed gradual changes in the mass-loss rates, and the derived CNO abundances comply with the values reported in the literature. We were able to achieve a quantitative match with stellar evolution models for the stellar masses and luminosities. However, the spectroscopic surface abundances turned out to be inconsistent with the theoretical predictions. The stars show N enrichment, typical for CNO cycle processed material, but the abundance ratios did not reflect the associated levels of C and O depletion. We found HD 42087 to be the most consistent with a pre-RSG evolutionary stage, HD 58350 is most likely in a post-RSG evolution and HD 52089 shows stellar parameters compatible with a star at the TAMS.

This project was the first science application of the steepest-descent fitting procedure XTgrid with CMFGEN wind models for massive stars.

CMFGEN model for the CASLEO observation of HD 52089:

Best-fit XTgrid/CMFGEN model for HD 52089.

Fits to the CASLEO spectra:

Science contact

  • Dr Julieta Paz Sánchez Arias
  • Astronomical Institute of the Czech Academy of Sciences
  • Fričova 298, CZ-25165, Ondřejov, Czech Republic
  • Phone:
  • Email: julieta.sanchezno

Related links

  • Research paper on NASA/ADS
  • Research paper on Astro-ph
  • Targets:
  • PU Gem (3 Gem, HD42087) on SIMBAD
  • ϵ CMa (eps CMa, HD52089) on SIMBAD
  • η CMa (eta CMa, HD58350) on SIMBAD

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